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Eftychia Ferentinou, John Koutelekos, Afroditi Zartaloudi, Despoina Pappa, Vasiliki Georgousopoulou, Chrisoula Dafogianni

Sunday, January 1, 2023

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Pages: 80-96

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10461834


Background: This article reviewed current findings on dietary adherence in children and youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Purpose: The main objective of this study was to implement a systematic review methodology in order to contribute to the literature on the dietary adherence to the patients with T1DM. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review among articles are published between January 2006 and June 2022 using electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) for all available publications in English. Results: The included studies involved children and youth with T1DM, presented dietary adherence data specifically, and described usual dietary patterns in youth. Articles are focus exclusively on dietary adherence. The final sample was 27 articles of last 16 years. Studies examining macronutrients and dietary recommendations revealed higher than recommended intakes of fat and saturated fat and lower than recommended intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The available literature identified many children and youth with T1DM have poor adherence and not meeting dietary guidelines for their disease.  Discussion: Regarding the diet of children with T1DM, it seemed that it is usually no different from that of their healthy peers. A review of the literature also shows the great interest that exists regarding the factors that can act as inhibitors of compliance. Many youths with T1DM did not adhere to daily recommendations for the intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grain foods. Last but not least it is found that nutrition education targeting children with T1DM should continue to reinforce healthful dietary patterns while ensuring success with carbohydrate estimation to optimize metabolic control. Conclusion: Future research should examine diet in youth exclusively on intensive insulin regimens, community-based predictors of diet, and the influence of mood on dietary adherence.

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