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Areti Tsaloglidou

Friday, January 1, 2021

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Pages: 19-27

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5501818


Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are the most common "congenital" disorders affecting ?0.8% of live births. Most of them are not inherited, but are the result of incomplete development and formation of the cardiovascular system in fetal life.  Purpose: The purpose of this review was to present congenital heart disease in children and the ways to treat them. Methodοlogy: The methodology used was based on the review of Greek and international literature. Electronic databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar and the Hellenic Academic Libraries Association (HEAL-Link) were used. Criteria for exclusion of articles were the language, except of English and Greek. Results: The majority of congenital heart diseases can be corrected by open heart surgery or invasive catheterization (balloon angioplasty, umbrella closure) and in most patients, their hemodynamic status improves and the symptoms disappear. The 20% of children with congenital heart disease under the age of 12 months and 25% at the age of over 12 months need surgery and the 15% of them need reoperation. In total, 45% of children with congenital heart disease need a kind of surgery during their life. Relieving or definitive reoperation to correct complications (often 2-3 surgeries can be performed on a child) is needed for the  15% of children with congenital heart disease.Conclusions: The effects of congenital heart diseases  vary widely from an asymptomatic heart murmur or abnormal heartbeat to severe cyanosis, congestive heart failure (HF), or circulatory failure. Thanks to the development of diagnostic and surgical techniques in the early 20th century, it was possible to largely correct these diseases, with a consequent dramatic reduction in morbidity and mortality.

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