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Magdalini Skourti, Georgia Toulia

Sunday, January 1, 2023

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Pages: 6-18

DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10461405


Introduction: In recent decades, the incidence of chronic kidney disease has been increasing rapidly worldwide, which is mainly attributed to the increase in life expectancy, the aging of the world population, the increased incidence of risk factors, dietary habits and physical inaction.The purpose of this review was to assess the dementia experienced by patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methodology: Research articles were searched in the online databases Pub Med and Google scholar mainly from the last decade using the keywords: "dementia, hemodialysis, cognitive function". Results : According to estimates, patients  with end-stage chronic kidney disease have a 2 to 7 fold higher prevalence of cognitive decline and dementia. After starting hemodialysis, the risk of dementia increases linearly with age. Cerebrovascular disease of the small vessels is the most common cause of vascular dementia. The literature review showed that factors associated with dementia in patients under hemodialysis were: hypotension, anemia, low body weight, poor diet, albuminuria, presence of inflammation, magnesium levels, low estimated sperm filtration rate (eGFR), uremia, high creatinine levels, receiving multiple medications, anxiety-depression, sleep disorders and traditional risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking. Conclusions: The estimation of the incidence of dementia in patients undergoing hemodialysis and associated factors is crucial for designing individualized intervention and sensitizing healthcare professionals not to underestimate the presence of dementia.

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